Discover how to assist others by using counselling strategies.
There are numerous coping and damage-repair mechanisms that seem to function psychologically.
Although these patterns seem to work naturally, learning may have an impact. The most typical ones consist of:
- Talking – Following a painful or upsetting occurrence, people frequently feel the need to repeatedly recount the event to others in order to ease their anxiety and allow themselves to get desensitised to it.
- Crying is a frequent response to emotional pain and stress in both adults and children.
- Laughing – Approaching injuries humorously and attempting to laugh them off can ease emotional strain.
- Support Seeking – Adults and people often turn to others for support and protection when they are under stress.
- Dreams – Those who have experienced horrific events like fires, accidents, etc. may report having recurring dreams or nightmares in which they relive the painful experience. This seems to be making the person less sensitive to their traumatic event.
These responses differ depending on the circumstance, the traumatic event’s nature, and the individual. Ego-defence mechanisms are another category of defence mechanisms.
There are 8 lessons in this course:
- Psychoanalytic psychotherapy l – Freud, Erikson, Jung
- Value and relevance of psychotherapy
- Emergence of psychoanalytical theory
- Principles of psychoanalytical theory
- Elements of the personality
- The notion of conscious and unconscious
- Anxiety and psychoanalysis
- Inbuilt psychological coping and damage repair mechanisms
- Defence mechanisms
- Freud’s psycho-sexual theory and Erikson’s psychosocial theory
- Jung’s perspective on personality
- Recent developments in psychoanalytical theory
- Goals of psychoanalytical approach
- Psychoanalytic techniques
- Analytic framework
- Free associations
- Dream analysis
- Psychoanalytic approach and counselling
- Personality disorders
- Critique for psychoanalytic theory
- Psychoanalytical psychotherapy ll – Adler
- Alfred Adler
- Adler’s key concepts
- Inferiority vs superiority
- What makes people self interested
- Social interest and community feeling
- Individual psychology
- Psychological types: ruling type, leaning type, avoiding type
- Sibling relationships
- Only child
- First child, second child, youngest child
- Use of Adlerian theory
- Applications to counselling
- Freud and Adler
- Humanistic/Existential approaches I – Gestalt Therapy; Fritz Perls
- Human nature
- Holistic approach
- Field theory
- Figure-formation process
- Organismic self-regulation
- Focus on the present
- Resolving dilemmas
- Personal maturity
- The effect of contact
- Effect of energy
- The experiment
- Gestalt techniques: Internal dialogue, reversal, rehearsal, exaggeration, dream work, etc.
- Humanistic/Existential approaches II – Person-Centred Counselling; Carl Rogers
- Humanistic therapy
- Principles of person centred approach
- Personal attitude of the counsellor
- Goals of therapy
- Assessment techniques
- Areas of application
- Rational behavioural therapy – Albert Ellis
- Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT
- Ellis’s view of human nature
- Personality theory
- Goals and techniques of therapy
- Therapeutic techniques
- Cognitive techniques
- Emotive techniques
- Use of REBT
- Cognitive behavioural therapy – Aaron Beck
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and REBT
- Premises of CBT
- Cognitive distortions
- Use of cognitive therapy
- Family therapy
- Modifications to CBT
- Stress inoculation training program (SIT)
- Stages of SIT
- Constructivist modification
- Behavioural therapy
- Contemporary behavioural therapy
- Behavioural approach
- Goals and techniques
- Goals of therapy
- Use of behaviour therapy
- Basic ID
- Solution-focused counselling
- Strategies in solution focussed counselling
- Engaging the client
- Constructing pathways for change
- Generating creative solutions
Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school’s tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.
How You Plan to Act
- Describe the core ideas of Adlerian theory, the four stages of the Adlerian counselling process, and the main distinctions between Adlerian and Freudian theory.
- Recognize the main tenets of the Gestalt approach, talk about problem-solving, and define the many effects and strategies of Gestalt therapy.
- Define the person-centered approach to counselling so that you can comprehend its tenets, objectives, methods of evaluation, and proper use.
- Describe Albert Ellis’s concept, the development of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), the steps required to arrive at a logical worldview, and the various REBT approaches.
- Define the primary “cognitive distortions,” compare and contrast Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and REBT, and show that you are aware of CBT’s adjustments.
- Learn to appreciate the features of modern behavioural therapy and the many approaches to problem-solving used by behavioural therapists.
- Describe the function of solution-focused counselling in contemporary treatment and the methods employed to come up with solutions.
- Describe the idea behind dream analysis.
- Provide an explanation of Erikson’s modification to conventional psychoanalytical theory.
- Provide an explanation of how “narcissistic” and “borderline” personality disorders came to be, according to object relations.
- What distinguishes Freudian theory from Adlerian theory?
- Explain the core ideas of Adlerian theory, such as personality, objectives, and lifestyle.
- Describe the difference between superiority and inferiority.
- Explain the four steps in the Adlerian counselling process: establishing a relationship with the client; examining the client; promoting self-awareness; and re-education.
- Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of using Adlerian therapy in counselling.
- What is Gestalt therapy?
- Describe the role that aspects of human nature play in the Gestalt approach.
- Talk about how the Gestalt method can be used to overcome problems.
- The “effect of contact” and the “impact of energy” should be explained.
- Talk about the utilisation of conflict.
- Explain the various Gestalt therapy procedures.
- Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of using Gestalt therapy in counselling.
- Describe what person-centered counselling is.
- Describe the person-centered approach’s guiding ideas.
- Talk about the evaluation of the counselling process’s impact.
- Discuss appropriate application areas.
- Talk about the benefits and drawbacks of using a person-centered approach in counselling.
- Explain REBT.
- What are Ellis’ beliefs about “human nature”?
- Explain Ellis’ personality theory.
- Describe the steps that go into creating a logical philosophy of life.
- Explain the various methods employed by REBTs.
- Talk about the benefits and drawbacks of using REBT in counselling.
- Compare and contrast CBT and REBT, then.
- Describe the key “cognitive distortions” as they are described in CBT.
- Describe the CBT’s objectives.
- Explain the changes made to CBT (known as CBM).
- Describe the three stages of CBT.
- Talk about the benefits and drawbacks of using CBT in counselling.
- What are the key features of behavioural therapy?
- Explain the many behavioural therapy strategies, such as exposure therapy, systematic desensitisation, relaxation training, and assertiveness training.
- Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of behavioural treatment in the context of counselling.
- Describe counselling that is solution-focused.
- Provide examples of engaging the client.
- Explain the process of creating change pathways using questions.
- Talk about the methods employed to come up with original solutions.
- Address the advantages and disadvantages of solution-focused treatment in the context of counselling.
When faced with psychological issues, many people use defence strategies, frequently unconsciously. Defense systems might either falsify or reject reality. They always function subconsciously. Analysts pay close attention to resistances or defence mechanisms since they are thought to indicate sensitive or ego-threatening areas.
A counselor’s ability to identify and comprehend defence mechanisms is useful when they are used. The following are the main ones that have been noted:
Repression is a crucial defence mechanism since it protects against unexpectedly traumatic situations until the person grows acclimated to the shock. Repression can help someone manage undesirable or harmful desires, giving them time to calm their concern about them. Thoughts that are harmful or dangerous are suppressed. This entails pushing the idisordered d’s desires into the unconscious world. These suppressed desires frequently continue to manifest themselves in dreams, verbal lapses, or psychopathological symptoms.
This entails channelling urges related to life and death into more societally acceptable activities, such as art or sport. This entails creating a secondary, socially acceptable aim that can be achieved in place of the original, primary goal. An exceptionally violent person might join the army, where killing can be socially acceptable, to sate his drive to kill.
3. A project
This entails transferring one’s own unfavourable desires and urges onto another person. This kind of rationalisation is specific. It entails putting someone else’s bad traits on ourselves. An illustration of this would be if you had an illogical animosity for someone else and went around telling everyone that they hated you.
4. Intelligent development
In order to avoid the emotional content, a person will try to justify their actions in ways that appear more palatable in this situation. This entails separating oneself from intense feelings about a problem by addressing it in an intellectually rigorous manner.
Although it functions on a preconscious or conscious level, this is comparable to repression. This just entails rejecting the reality of a circumstance or emotion (simple but radical!). Those who have lost loved ones use this defence the most often; they go through a stage where they deny it is true.
This is a technique for explaining away behaviours by offering a different and sensible explanation. This occurs when we present a socially acceptable justification for a behaviour pattern that is really driven by irrational emotions. Example: Someone wants to avoid their mother because they are upset with her. They come up with a fabrication as to why they shouldn’t go see her (e.g. It is too far away). It is illogically defending maladaptive behaviour.
7. Formation of reactions
Here, the person acts in a way or promotes ideas that are entirely at odds with what they actually believe or feel. This entails unknowingly acting in opposition to how you really feel in order to mask your feelings. For instance, a lady who was unable to have an abortion can harbour strong animosity towards her child and instinctively want to kill it. Instead, she shows the youngster overwhelming amounts of love and protection.
This describes the act of channelling and expressing one’s sentiments and urges towards a less dangerous objective. This entails the transfer of a distressing emotion, like anger, from one person to another. This occurs when an emotion or symbol that was originally intended at one person is transferred to another. Displacement lessens the anxiety brought on by the unreasonable wish while also partially granting it. It is impossible to get rid of the fundamental emotion of unjustified anger against a parent, for instance. Instead, the person will channel their rage against a different, less significant and dangerous individual. For instance, a worker in an office might be unable to express their rage to their management, so they might go home and vent on their partner.
At this stage, people tend to regress to a period of their lives when they felt more at ease and adhere to the behaviours they displayed at that time. For instance, an older child may revert to more infantile behaviour, such wetting the bed or demanding a bottle, when a new baby enters the household.
Although from a developmental perspective this can be advantageous, it can also be exploited to provide the person a sense of self-worth and shield them from failure. Imitative learning may involve identification, such as when a girl identifies with her mother and uses her as a role model. Also, it can serve as a defence mechanism to strengthen self-worth and guard against self-devaluation. People may be particularly susceptible to stressful situations if their sense of value or sufficiency is too much focused on their identification with others.
When someone absorbs and ingrains another person’s values into their own personality, this happens. (It may be a beneficial thing, like having good parents.) Identification and intrusion go hand in hand. It entails embracing other people’s values and standards, even when they run counter to their own prior beliefs, as a defensive reaction. Individuals may internalise the standards set by society in order to refrain from acting in ways that will invite criticism and punishment from others.
This occurs when a person develops desirable attributes to cover up their flaws. Defenses against emotions of inferiority or inadequacy include compensations. They can take on many different forms and indicate positive behaviour when a person works to overcome obstacles, such as a person who struggled to learn to communicate becoming a great speaker or a boy who was physically unappealing becoming a highly likeable person.
13. Insulation of the heart
The person lessens their emotional investment in circumstances that they perceive as depressing and upsetting. People typically learn to control their expectations and hopes because life is full with disappointments. They take care not to celebrate in case anticipated occurrences don’t materialise to prevent getting their hopes up too high.
A bad thought or deed is intended to be negated or annulled through atonement. Undoing can be done by apologising for your actions, repenting, and performing penance. Youngsters might learn that they can start over without a new beginning and fresh parental approval if they apologise or get punishment for misbehaviour. As a result, people frequently pick up techniques for atoning for or correcting their transgressions in an effort to avoid punishment or self-devaluation.
Acting out is a means for someone to reduce tension and anxiety when harmful desires are involved by actually allowing them to be voiced. For instance, if someone feels mistreated and prejudiced against, they may act out physically, use violence, etc.
Why Take This Course?
The theories and concepts of several significant practitioners have influenced the development of counselling. Several of these significant contributors have come from various viewpoints and schools of thinking. Each has advantages and may provide graduates of counselling and psychotherapy with a useful ideology and framework. Knowing these various methods enables students to decide for themselves whatever strategies and procedures they want to use in their own work as well as the relative benefits and drawbacks of each.
Anyone working in, or interested in working in, the following fields will find this course particularly interesting:
- Health professions
- Caring roles