BE PREPARED FOR A CAREER IN THE SCIENCES OF HEALTH
An vital foundational course for anybody interested in studying, caring for, or working with animals. The simplest form of life is the cell. Understanding its functions is crucial to comprehending how higher animals and plants function. The structure of cells, the chemical makeup of cells, organelles, DNA, Meiosis, and Mitosis, membranes, protein structure, function, and synthesis, catalysis, cellular communication, transport, tissue creation, and other topics will all be covered.
“The course was better than I imagined,” said the student. “I’ll be enrolling in a bachelor’s programme in health sciences next year. I learned a lot more from this course than I had anticipated.” J.McEwan
- Enroll and begin learning whenever you want.
- Work at your own speed and prioritise tasks that are more important to you.
- Excellent teachers who are highly qualified and have years of expertise are ready to help you every step of the way.
There are 9 lessons in this course:
- Introduction to Cells and Their Structure
- History of cell biology
- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
- Cell shape and size
- Cell structure
- The nucleus including the nucleolus, euchromatin and heterochromatin
- Differences in animal and plant cells
- Cell Chemistry
- Cell chemical composition
- Nucleic acids
- Cell membranes
- Golgi apparatus
- DNA, Chromosomes and Genes
- DNA, Chromosomes, Genes
- DNA replication
- Telomeres and telomerase
- Case study in genetic inheritance
- Phenotype and genotype
- Gene mutations.
- Lesson 4. Cell Division: Meiosis and Mitosis
- Cell Membranes
- Structure of cell membranes
- Movement of molecules through cell membranes
- Osmosis and filtration
- Hydrostatic pressure
- Active transport
- Electro-chemical gradient
- Nutrient and waste exchange in animal cells
- Mediated and non-mediated transport
- Protein Structure and Function
- Protein structure
- Fibrous proteins
- Globular proteins
- Protein organisation
- Primary to quaternary structure
- Protein function
- Protein Synthesis
- The function of ribonucleic acid in protein synthesis
- Transcription and translation
- Food, Energy, Catalysis and Biosynthesis
- Sources of energy
- Metabolism within the cell
- Catabolic metabolism
- Anabolic metabolism
- ATP movement
- Kreb’s cycle
- Production and storage of energy
- Energy production pathways from different foods
- Biosynthesis of cell molecules
- Intracellular Compartments, Transport and Cell Communication
- Cell communication
- Endocrine signalling
- Paracrine signalling
- Autocrine signalling
- Actin filaments
- Intermediate filaments
- The Cell Cycle and Tissue Formation
- The cell cycle
- Phases of the cell cycle
- Cell cycle regulation
- Cell death
- Cells to bodies
- Stem cells
- Animal tissues including muscle, connective, epithelial, nerve, blood
Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school’s tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.
- Cover the fundamentals of cell structure and talk about the nature and scope of cell biology.
- Explain the chemical elements and functions that make up cells.
- Explain how genetic information is stored within cells and how it is passed on to the following generation.
- Name some fundamental ideas in molecular biology.
- Talk about the transport across cell membranes and membrane structure.
- Explain the composition and purpose of proteins.
- Explain and talk about protein synthesis.
- List the key steps in the energy transfer and storing processes in a cell.
- Explain the important events that take place during intracellular transport and cell communication.
- Explain how cells reproduce and how they unite to form various tissues.
What exactly are cell membranes?
Any barrier enclosing or containing cells or cellular organelles is a membrane. They permit the passage of chemicals and ions both inside and between cells because they are selectively permeable. This makes it easier to separate and control metabolic activities. Outside of the cell membrane, the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plants are also present. A plasma membrane makes up the cell membrane. plasmonic membranes
Lipids, in particular phospholipids (figure 1), which are merely lipids that include phosphorus, make up the majority of membranes. Depending on the kind of membrane, lipids typically make up roughly 50% of the bulk of the membrane. The other main component of membranes, proteins, often make approximately 25% to 75% of the mass of the membrane.
Membrane composition differs between different types of organisms. Two phospholipid layers, together referred to as the Phospholipid Bilayer, make up the majority of animal membranes. The bilayer is made up of an inward-facing hydrophobic fatty acid tail and two rows of hydrophilic (water-attracting) phospholipid “heads” on the membrane’s outer surfaces. This bilayer spontaneously creates a barrier between two aquatic environments and is stable.
Mammalian membranes contain four different types of phospholipids, as well as cholesterol, glycolipids, and other lipids. The ability of the individual lipid and protein molecules to rotate and move laterally within lipid bilayers is a crucial characteristic. The Fluid Mosaic Model was created as a result of this. The model that is currently used to explain how cell membranes are constructed. The lipids and proteins placed into the liquid bilayer are free to move on the 2D plane, hence the name fluid mosaic, which is crucial to comprehend.
In the phospholipid bilayer, membrane proteins are inserted with the purpose of carrying out particular tasks.
There are several ways that proteins can be in the lipid bilayer:
- Integral or transmembrane proteins spread throughout the entire membrane.
- The cell may be indirectly related with peripheral proteins that are linked to the cell either by a fatty acid chain, an oligosaccharide, or via protein-protein interactions.