Learn what drives animal behaviour…
You can better handle and take care of your animals if you have a basic understanding of animal anatomy and physiology.
This course will assist you in learning the fundamentals of animal health and biological systems and is suitable for both beginning and intermediate students. You’ll benefit:
- grasp how to diagnose disease
- recognise whether an animal has been injured
- comprehend the physical prowess or limitations of a particular species
- comprehend the mechanisms involved in nutrition and growth
You will study:
- cells and tissues,
- the skeletal system
- the digestive system,
- the circulatory system,
- the urinary system,
- the nervous system,
- the respiratory system,
- the reproductive system,
- muscles and meat,
- animal growth, and development,
- and the endocrine system.
What is Anatomy? What is Physiology?
The science that studies the structure and form of creatures is known as anatomy. The study of how the body or any of its parts works is the subject of physiology. A thorough understanding of an animal’s structure can reveal a lot about the numerous tasks that it is capable of carrying out..
This knowledge is essential if you want to work with animals in any capacity.
There are 11 lessons in this course:
- Introduction to cells & tissues
- livestock classes
- livestock products
- interrelationship between crops and livestock
- cells and tissues
- special properties of cells
- nutrient waste
- The Digestive System
- digestive system
- mouth, tongue, teeth,
- simple stomach
- small intestine
- large intestine
- ruminant stomach
- accessory organs of the digestive system
- absorption and utilisation in the simple stomach
- breakdown by microorganisms
- digestion, absorption and utilisation in the ruminant stomach
- mechanical action
- action of micro-organisms
- utilisation of the end products of digestion
- The Circulatory System
- circulatory system
- composition of blood
- functions of blood
- clotting mechanism
- blood vessels
- physiology of the circulatory system
- rates of heart beats
- lymphatic system
- circulatory networks
- The Urinary System
- anatomy of the urinary system
- physiology of urinary system
- excretion in different animals
- The Nervous System
- central and peripheral nervous system
- main parts of the nervous system
- sensory neurons
- motor neurons
- central nervous system
- the brain
- spinal cord
- peripheral nervous system
- cranial nerves
- spinal nerves
- autonomic nervous system
- reflex actions
- endocrine system
- structure and function of the ear
- structure and function of the eye
- the iris
- structure and function of the nose
- anatomy of respiration
- bronchial tree
- physiology of respiration
- gaseous exchange
- rate and depth of breathing
- The Reproductive System
- anatomy of the male reproductive system
- accessory organs
- physiology of male reproductive system
- hormone production
- sperm production
- fertility problems in males
- venereal diseases
- other diseases
- physical immaturity
- emotional immaturity
- poor handling
- anatomy of female reproductive system
- fallopian tubes
- physiology of the female reproductive system
- ovulation, oestrus cycle
- fertility problems, difficulties conceiving
- venereal and other diseases
- physical abnormalities
- inability to carry a foetus to full-term
- pregnancy and parturition
- birth process
- difficult births
- structure of the mammary glands
- secretion of milk
- milk ejection
- reproduction data for cows, sows and ewes
- Muscles & Meat
- muscles and meat
- smooth muscle
- striated voluntary muscle
- cardiac muscle
- structure of meat
- dressing out percentage
- composition of the beef animal
- meat quality and tenderness
- cuts and joints of meat
- The Skeleton
- how bones are formed
- anatomy of bones
- fractures and fracture healing
- five types of bone
- joints of bone
- the skeleton
- the dental formula
- dental formula of an ox and cow
- eruption of permanent teeth
- Animal Growth, Development, and the Endocrine System
- growth and development
- growth curve
- prenatal growth
- post-natal growth
- factors which affect the size of newborns
- factors affecting post-natal growth
- early maturing
- compensatory growth
- endocrine system
- pituitary gland
- adrenal bodies
- pineal body
- mucous membrane of the stomach
- Comparing Different Animals
- incubating eggs
- natural incubation
- symptoms of a broody hen
Each lesson ends with an assignment that is sent in to the school, graded by the tutors there, and returned to you with any pertinent comments and suggestions—and, if necessary, additional reading—if they are applicable.
- Describe the skeletal system, internal organs, and cellular and tissue makeup of animals.
- Provide an explanation of animal digestion.
- Describe how animals’ circulatory systems work.
- Describe the design and purpose of the animal urinary system.
- Describe how animals’ neural systems work.
- Describe how animals’ respiratory systems work.
- Describe the reproductive system of animals.
- Describe the animal musculoskeletal system.
- Describe the structure of a typical mammal’s skeleton.
- Describe the biological processes that underlie the development and growth of animals.
- Describe how animals’ endocrine systems work.
- Describe the structural and functional variations between various animal species.
“I think it is absolutely brilliant. I have never come across such a friendly, helpful staff and am so enjoying my course. I will definitely recommend A.C.S to anybody who wants to study” Tanya Sadler – United Arab Emirates
“The course teaches you the different systems within animals in terms of structure and function, cell and tissue structure, and also the differences between different categories of animals.” Marius Erasmus – A.C.S Tutor – B. Science (Agriculture,) B. Science (Wildlife), Master of Science (Agriculture)
The First Step to Improved Animal Handling is Learning
Those working in a variety of professions, especially those working with livestock, household pets, and wildlife, benefit from having a solid understanding of animal anatomy and physiology. This course offers a very solid foundation to understanding both the structural anatomy and functional physiology of animals. It mostly concentrates on mammal species, but it also includes some other more advanced creatures.
You must first comprehend what an animal is (its components) and how it works before you can fully comprehend how it develops, moves, consumes food, becomes sick, or does anything else (the way each of those parts operates).
- The various components of an animal’s body, such as its cells, tissues, bones, and muscles, are discussed under structure (anatomy).
- The various systems operating in an animal’s body, such as the digestive, locomotor, urinary, and reproductive systems, are referred to as its function (physiology).
How Can an Animal Maintain and Develop?
Think about how waste products go from the cells into the veins and how nutrients move from the arteries into the cells.
The body is covered in both arteries and veins. Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart and lung whereas arteries transport oxygenated blood from the heart to the various bodily regions. They are initially big tubes that are about a little finger wide. Their walls are very thick. As an artery widens, it splits into branches, which then get smaller and narrower until they eventually turn into very tiny, thread-like tubes known as capillaries. Capillaries, which have extremely thin walls, are where the venous and artery systems join together.
There is a substance called interstitial fluid between the capillaries and the cells that the capillaries transport nutrients to. (“Intervening space” is what “interstitial” signifies). The fluid that surrounds the cells and capillaries serves as a tether.
The nutrients that the arteries transport flow through the artery walls to the capillaries, then go via the interstitial fluid to the cell walls. Similar to how waste passes, except in the other direction! They pass through the venous capillary walls, the interstitial fluid, and the cell walls.
Although it seems like a straightforward process, this is a complex operation that makes advantage of all the unique characteristics of cells (such as osmosis, hydrostatic pressure and the electro-chemical gradient).
The term “growth” refers to an increase in body weight. The term “development” refers to a change in physical composition. An adult mammal is created in its ultimate form by the following four processes:
differentiation, or the process by which mother cells change into several cell types. For instance, mother cells undergo transformation to develop into the specialised cells of the brain, kidneys, liver, intestines, etc. As the cells cannot transform back into mother cells after these specialised organs have been produced, this process is irreversible.
Cellular organisation into tissues, organ development from tissues, and whole-body growth from organs are all referred to as morphogenesis.
The biological and chemical processes that begin when the ovum is fertilised and terminate when the body reaches a size and conformation that is typical of the species are collectively referred to as growth.
The coordination of various processes that lead to an adult with a form or appearance that is unique to the species is called development. Higher species continue to develop longer than less advanced ones do.
Although the process of growth itself is quite complex, it is nevertheless possible to create a graph for each type of animal that illustrates the anticipated rise in body weight over time. Graphs like this are known as growth curves.
Puberty, or the beginning of sexual activity, happens at roughly 30% of body weight, or after the animal has grown by about one-third. The two stages of growth are. Phase 1 is known as the self-accelerating phase since this is when growth is at its fastest. Phase 2 is known as the self-inhibitory phase because growth slows and ultimately stops during this time.
The point of inflection happens in Phase 1, which is also when this phase’s already rapid growth is at its fastest. It draws attention to the growth spurt that takes place throughout puberty. The physiological age of various species is compared using this idea, making it crucial.
HOW CAN THIS COURSE HELP YOU?
Animal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to all forms of work in animal care, are covered in this course’s introductory lectures. Taking a course like this demonstrates your commitment to caring for animals. It is intended for:
- Those without formal training who are currently working with animals or who want to.
- those who work with animals (such as volunteers) in order to advance in their careers or for better job chances.
- People that desire to access further education.